Main Article Content
The purpose of this study was to assess fifth-grade students’ learning of abstract mathematical concepts in a blended learning environment enhanced with a web-based virtual laboratory. The “PhET” simulations site was taken as a web-based tool since it introduces a research-based mathematics interactive simulation. The study aimed to identify the extent of differences in academic progress between the experimental group taught about “Fractions” through a flexible blended learning pedagogical model, and the control group taught the same concepts through the conventional method. Thirty students were targeted and randomly selected from a private school in Muscat. To answer the research questions, both the control and experimental groups were pre-post tested on learning the targeted abstract mathematical concepts. The results showed that there is a clear positive effect on raising the level of achievement of students in abstract mathematical concepts in favor of the experimental group. Also, the experimental group were interviewed to gain more understanding about their perceptions regarding the method used in learning abstract mathematical concepts. Students were found to highly favor using the simulation website.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The author declares that the submitted to Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society (Je-LKS) is original and that is has neither been published previously nor is currently being considered for publication elsewhere.
The author agrees that SIe-L (Italian Society of e-Learning) has the right to publish the material sent for inclusion in the journal Je-LKS.
The author agree that articles may be published in digital format (on the Internet or on any digital support and media) and in printed format, including future re-editions, in any language and in any license including proprietary licenses, creative commons license or open access license. SIe-L may also use parts of the work to advertise and promote the publication.
The author declares s/he has all the necessary rights to authorize the editor and SIe-L to publish the work.
The author assures that the publication of the work in no way infringes the rights of third parties, nor violates any penal norms and absolves SIe-L from all damages and costs which may result from publication.
The author declares further s/he has received written permission without limits of time, territory, or language from the rights holders for the free use of all images and parts of works still covered by copyright, without any cost or expenses to SIe-L.
For all the information please check the Ethical Code of Je-LKS, available at http://www.je-lks.org/index.php/ethical-code
- Aboraya, W. A., & Elkot, M. A. 2020. “The effect of a flipped learning pedagogical model enhanced with a mobile application on students’ performance and motivation”. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 50-56. https://www.ijstr.org/final-print/jul2020/The-Effect-Of-A-Flipped-Learning-Pedagogical-Model-Enhanced-With-A-Mobile-Application-On-Students-Performance-And-Motivation.pdf
- Al-Badri, A. H. 2016. “The Impact of the Use of Virtual Labs on The Development of the Skills of Exploratory Learning on the Practical Lessons of Chemistry on the Students of the Eleventh Grade in The Sultanate of Oman”. Benha University, Journal of Faculty of Education, vol. 27, no. 106, Part 1, pp. 1-27.
- Al-Bawi, M. I., Abd, F. S., and Ghazi, A. B. 2016. “The Impact of The Use of Virtual Laboratories in the Theoretical and Practical Performance of Students in the Fifth Grade Scientific”. Education Technology: Studies and research, Special issue for the Technology and Global Challenges to Education conference on 19-20 July, pp. 23-56.
- Al-Hazimi, G. M. 2017. “Effectiveness of the Use of Educational Software in the Development of Achievement and the Rapid Delivery of Homework in Mathematics of Students in the Second Grade Primary School in Al Magmaa City”. Ain Shams University, Journal of the Faculty of Education in Educational Sciences, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 120-178.
- Alkhaldi, T., Pranata, I., & Athauda, R. I. 2016. “A review of contemporary virtual and remote laboratory implementations: observations and findings”. Journal of Computers in Education, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 329-351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-016-0068-z
- Alket, M. 2017. “A Network-Based Peer Evaluation Strategy”. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, vol 9, no. 4, pp. 32–42. https://doi.org/10.5815/ijmecs.2017.04.04
- Ardiyati, T.K., Wilujeng, I. and Kuswanto, H. 2019, June. The Effect of Scaffolding Approach Assisted by PhET Simulation on the Achievement of Science Process Skills in Physics. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1233, No. 1, p. 012035). IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1233/1/012035
- Aşıksoy, G., & Islek, D. 2017. “The Impact of the Virtual Laboratory on Students' Attitudes in a General Physics Laboratory”. International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 20-28 https://doi.org/10.3991/ijoe.v13i04.6811
- Baghdadi, D. G. 2014. “Effectiveness of a Virtual Laboratory Design Based on Multiple Reactions to Develop Some Laboratory Experimental Skills in The Chemistry Curriculum for First Secondary Year Students”. Port Said University, Journal of the Faculty of Education, vol 15, no. 2, pp. 511-534.
- Brown, A. H., & Green, T. D. 2015. The essentials of instructional design: Connecting fundamental principles with process and practice. Routledge.
- Bunnell, T. 2017. “Revolutionizing K-12 Blended Learning through the i^ sub 2^ Flex Classroom Model”. The International Schools Journal, vol. 36, no. 2, p. 87. https://search.proquest.com/openview/04d74f7c1445dce0875623f86536a8bc/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2029238
- Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M., & Hanson, W. 2003. “Advanced mixed methods research designs”. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 209–240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Dasilva, B.E., Kuswanto, H. and Wilujeng, I. 2019, June. SSP Development with a Scaffolding Approach Assisted by PhET Simulation on Light Refraction to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skills and Achievement of Science Process Skills. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (vol. 1233, no. 1, p. 012044). IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1233/1/012044
- Dicheva, D., Dichev, C., Agre, G., & Angelova, G. 2015. “Gamification in education: A systematic mapping study”. Educational Technology & Society, vol.18, no. 3, pp. 75-88. https://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.18.3.75
- Elkot, M. A. 2019. “Embedding Adaptation Levels within Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Developing Programming Skills and Improving Learning Efficiency”. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 82–87. https://thesai.org/Downloads/Volume10No12/Paper_11-Embedding_Adaptation_Levels_within_Intelligent_Tutoring_Systems.pdf
- Findley, K., Whitacre, I., Schellinger, J., & Hensberry, K. 2019. “Orchestrating Mathematics Lessons with Interactive Simulations: Exploring Roles in the Classroom”. Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 37-62. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/184666/.
- Gambari, A. I., Kawu, H., & Falode, O. C. 2018. “Impact of Virtual Laboratory on the Achievement of Secondary School Chemistry Students in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Collaborative Environments”. Contemporary Educational Technology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 246-263. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1185276
- Gunter, G., and Gunter, R. 2015. Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology in the Classroom (8th Edition). Shelly Cashman Series, Course Technology, Boston, MA. USA. ISBN: 9781285845432.
- Hensberry, K. K., Moore, E. B., & Perkins, K. 2015. “Using technology effectively to teach about fractions”. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, vol 20, no. 4, pp.19-25. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1093245
- Hensberry, K.K., Paul, A.J., Moore, E.B., Podolefsky, N.S. and Perkins, K.K. 2013. PhET Interactive simulations: new tools to achieve common core mathematics standards. In Common Core Mathematics Standards and implementing digital technologies (pp. 147-167). IGI Global. https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/phet-interactive-simulations/77480
- Heradio, R., de la Torre, L., Galan, D., Cabrerizo, F. J., Herrera-Viedma, E., & Dormido, S. 2016. “Virtual and remote labs in education: A bibliometric analysis”. Computers & Education, vol. 98, pp. 14-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.03.010
- Horn, M., Staker, H., & Christensen, C. 2014. Blended: Using Disruptive Innovation to Improve Schools. The Christensen Institute.
- Jordan, N. C., Rodrigues, J., Hansen, N., & Resnick, I. 2017. “Fraction development in children: Importance of building numerical magnitude understanding”. In Acquisition of complex arithmetic skills and higher-order mathematics concepts (pp. 125-140). Academic Press.https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-805086-6.00006-0
- Kablan, Z. 2016. “The effect of manipulatives on mathematics achievement across different learning styles”. Educational Psychology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 277-296. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2014.946889
- Lever-Duffy, J., & McDonald, J.B. 2011. Teaching and learning with technology, 4th Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
- Li, K., & Keller, J. M. 2018. “Use of the ARCS model in education: A literature review”. Computers & Education, vol. 122, pp. 54-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.019
- Lynch, T. and Ghergulescu, I. 2017, March. Review of virtual labs as the emerging technologies for teaching STEM subjects. In INTED2017 Proc. 11th Int. Technol. Educ. Dev. Conf. 6-8 March Valencia Spain (pp. 6082-6091). https://doi.org/10.21125/INTED.2017.1422
- Lynch, T. and Ghergulescu, I. 2017, July. NEWTON virtual labs: introduction and teacher perspective. In 2017 IEEE 17th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT) (pp. 343-345). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2017.133
- Moyer-Packenham, P., & Suh, J. 2012. “Learning mathematics with technology: The influence of virtual manipulatives on different achievement groups”. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 39-59. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/teal_facpub/1406/
- Muhammadi, N. A. 2015. “The Effectiveness of Proposed Educational Software on the Achievement of Students in the First Secondary Year in the Computer Curriculum in Jeddah”. Arab Studies in Education and Psychology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 305-327.
- Miranda-Palma, C., Canche-Euán, M., & Llanes-Castro, E. 2015. “Use of Educational Software in Mathematics Teaching: Case Yucatan, Mexico. International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), vol. 12, no. 6, p. 121. http://126.96.36.199/bitstream/handle/123456789/683/IJCSI-12-6-121-128.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y
- Muhtadi, D., Kartasasmita, B.G. and Prahmana, R.C.I. 2017, December. “The Integration of technology in teaching mathematics”. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 943, No. 1, p. 012020). IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/943/1/012020
- PhET. 2020, June. About PhET. Retrieved from: https://phet.colorado.edu/en/about
- Powell, A., Watson, J., Staley, P., Patrick, S., Horn, M., Fetzer, L., & Verma, S. 2015. Blending Learning: The Evolution of Online and Face-to-Face Education from 2008-2015. Promising Practices in Blended and Online Learning Series. International association for K-12 online learning. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED560788
- Reese, M. C. 2020. Comparison of student achievement among two science laboratory types: Traditional and virtual, (Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University). https://hdl.handle.net/11668/16860
- Reiten, L. 2018. “Promoting Student Understanding through Virtual Manipulatives. Mathematics Teacher”, vol. 111, no. 7, pp. 545-548. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5951/mathteacher.111.7.0545
- Sarhan, M. O. 2016. “The Effectiveness of Virtual Labs in Achievement of Third Grade Students in Riyadh”, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Educational Sciences, vol. 24, no. 1, part 1, pp. 411-435. http://search.shamaa.org/FullRecord?ID=120083
- Siochrú, C. Ó. 2018. “Rats, reinforcements and role models: Taking a second look at behaviourism and its relevance to education”. In Psychology and the Study of Education (pp. 142-160). Routledge.
- Smagorinsky, P. 2018. “Deconflating the ZPD and instructional scaffolding: Retranslating and reconceiving the zone of proximal development as the zone of next development”. Learning, culture and social interaction, vol.16, pp. 70-75.
- Staker, H., & Horn, M. B. 2012. Classifying K-12 blended learning. Innosight Institute. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED535180
- Sun, K. T., Lin, Y. C., & Yu, C. J. 2008. “A study on learning effect among different learning styles in a Web-based lab of science for elementary school students”. Computers & Education, vol 50, no. 4, pp. 1411-1422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2007.01.003
- Xu, X., & Ke, F. 2016. “Designing a virtual-reality-based, game-like math learning environment”. American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 27-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2016.1119621
- Zengin, Y., & Tatar, E. 2017. “Integrating dynamic mathematics software into cooperative learning environments in mathematics”. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, vol. 20, no. 2, pp.74-88. https://www.jstor.org/stable/90002165