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reused across various platforms. With the knowledge available for reuse and exam automation comes a new challenge: making sure that created exams are free of conﬂ icts. A Conﬂ ict exists in an exam if at least two questions within that exam are redundant in content, and/or if at least one question reveals the answer to another question within the same exam. In this paper we propose using Information Retrieval techniques to detect conﬂ icts within an exam. Our solution, ICE (Identiﬁ cation of Conﬂicts in Exams), is based on the vector space model relying on tf-idf weighing and the cosine function to calculate similarity. ICE also combines the hybrid recommendation techniques of the EQRS (Exam Question Recommender System) in order to propose replacements for conﬂ icting questions.
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